Agricultural Science and Technology Newsletter Q&A

Winter staple vegetable production imbalances workaround

                                                       
                                           Winter staple vegetable production imbalances workaround 

                Dai Zhen Yang, Guo Junyi 

Foreword
Vegetables is important livelihood necessities, consumer demand during the relatively short-term fixed its small supply and demand elasticity, often due to slight changes in quantity supplied, resulting in substantial fluctuations in the price, it can be often found in "golden dish", "dishes soil" phenomenon . In recent years more as a result of winter cabbage, Chinese cabbage and cauliflower and other staple vegetables, resulting in overproduction, vegetable prices plummeted, making the situation "vegetable soil," the worse. General farmers grow vegetables for the winter, the first farm self-sufficiency purposes only, gradually expanding the cultivation of the need to supply the city, because the acreage has repeatedly amplified, and the cold winter weather is more appropriate for vegetable growth, in terms of yield per unit area can be cultivated over the summer from 40 to 60% yield. Therefore, the increase in acreage and yield per unit area to improve the situation, resulting in a surge of winter vegetable production. Especially when the first crop of rice that planting, irrigation and harvesting must all occur several mining of lead concentrate supply and demand imbalance, prices fell, causing great losses to farmers.
Workaround
Given Taiwan's winter staple vegetables cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, etc., are often over-supply, so as to solve the problem of winter staple vegetable production, in order to avoid food prices are low farmers occur, and to meet the consuming public demand for vegetables, hope farmers The following remedial measures in line with the government: 

A winter fallow or planting green manure crops modified to maintain soil fertility field:
Taiwan farmers hard in the past year-round farming, growing vegetables consecutive constantly, resulting in loss of agricultural ecological 
balance to the soil gradually decline and deterioration, such a vicious cycle, will reduce agricultural productivity. In order to achieve sustainable development of agriculture, the soil should be put to good maintenance, or use of the fallow winter period given to change planting green manure crops, Bishi restore soil fertility. Among planting green manure crops to maintain soil fertility is more significant, and its efficacy, including increased crop yields and improve crop quality, inhibit weed growth, increased availability of soil nutrients, maintain or increase soil organic matter content, and to reduce pests it happened. Winter in northern Taiwan but the northeast monsoon and low temperatures, and a relatively dry season in central and southern regions of the lack of rain will affect the effectiveness of the cultivation of green manure, green manure species need to choose more suitable for the cultivation of winter. Taiwan bamboo Di common as Sesbania green manure, vetch, soybean, sun hemp, dishes, Egyptian clover, milk vetch, rape, etc, which vetch, clover and oilseed rape in Egypt in recent years, the government is actively promoting the winter green manure crops. 

Second, pay attention to the dynamics of vegetable production, and with the warning issued by the county government to set production
plans:
In order to minimize the risk of vegetable production, reducing blind investment grow, the need for rapid and accurate dynamic vegetable production, and thus obtain maximum benefits. Because Taiwan is still small-scale farmers as the main vegetable production, vegetable production state state makes more difficult to control, so each marketing classes or individual farmers in setting the production operations plan, you can not know in advance which kinds of vegetables and planting area, whether over Taiwan market demand, leading to difficulties in planning and regulating production and marketing of vegetables. However, the Government has invested considerable human and material resources in the establishment of crop production forecasts and information are judged, the warning issued by local governments and related units available for cultivation farmers reference. In addition, the government may wish to ask a lot of use of the monthly publication of "agricultural situation Specials' and published every two months," agricultural situation report "; on various agricultural and vegetable production magazine also published about dynamics, such as the harvest of" marketing column "agriculture World's "agricultural situation report" Friends of Horticulture of the "Fruit and Vegetable Business News", etc. Farmers may refer to the above vegetable production performance data, and, where appropriate Table 1 to Table 3 of the Taiwan market demand, detailed planning, will be able to avoid the peak of the market supply.

Above information is interception to the website of Taichung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station, COA.

Soil and Fertilizer Research

Soil and Fertilizer Research 

(1). Foliar Spray of Potassium and Calcium Solutions on the Leaf and Fruit Quality Performance of Guava
This study was conducted in a guava farm located in Hsichou Township, Changhua, Taiwan. In consideration of the results from both leaf and fruit, it is recommended to administrate 10 mM potassium chloride and calcium chloride at 7-10 days of interval to enhance traits of the blade, especialty the leaf thickness, and also, to administrate 40 mM calcium chloride to increase the number of guava fruit pulp rate and nutrient content.

(2). Effects of Different Amounts of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on the Rice Production
The two cultivars of Tainung No. 71 and Tainan No. 11 were tested in the first and the second crop, respectively. Through the multiple regression analysis (r=0.62**, P≤0.05, n=20), 90% of the maximum yield, around 7,000 kg ha -1, was obtained by the application of 130 kg N ha -1. The result inclicated that nitrogen content in brown rice was induced with the increase of application rate of nitrogen fertilizer, however, reduced in potassium content revesely. It could conclude that the amount of nitrogen fertilizer application is signficant influence both on the coarse grain yield and quality of rice.

(3). Study on the Uptake Pattern of N, P, K, Ca and Mg nutrient in Cymbidium Orchid
Three varieties: 1) ‘Gust moon’, 2) ‘Kenny’ and 3) ‘Serena’ were conducted. The results indicated that the N uptakes of Cymbidium Orchid were 80% and 20% at vegetative growth stage and at flowering stage, respectively. The P, K and Ca uptakes of Cymbidium Orchid were 70% and 30% at vegetative growth stage and at flowering stage, respectively. The Mg uptakes of Cymbidium Orchid were 95% and 5% at vegetative growth stage and at flowering stage, respectively.

(4). Effects of Phosphorus-Solublizing Bacteria and Phosphate Fertilizer on the Growth of Eggplant
There were significant effects on the growth of eggplant with applying phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in alkaline soil (Bray no.1 extracted P>120 mg/kg). However, the application of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and suitable amount of phosphate fertilizer was appropriated for eggplant growth.

(5). Study of Soil Salt Accumulation under Strutural Facility in the Central Taiwan
This reveald that soil salt accumulation is occurred under strutural facility in central Taiwan and most of salt accumulation is concentrated in 0~5 cm soil layer. The ion concentration that affected E.C. value of soil extracts under strutural facility is SO 4 2- and NO 3 -.

(6). Effects of Azolla and Organic Fertilizer on the Cultivation of Organic Rice
The results indicated that the fresh weight of weeds in rice field decreased about 86.2-95.9% on the treatment of Azolla than the check. The yield of organic rice on the application of Azolla increased about 5.1-5.6% in first crop and increased about 4.8-6.6% in second crop than the check, respectively. Therefore, the application rate of nitrogen should be 112.5 kg/ha in first crop and 97.5 kg/ha in second crop with the application of Azolla.

(7). Effects of Compost and Liquid Organic Fertilizer on the Culture of Organic Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and Eggplant ( Soanum melongena L.)
The treatments of bagasse sawdust compost 20 t/ha with liquid organic fertilizer 20 l/ha and bagasse sawdust compost 60 t/ha with liquid organic fertilizer 40 l/ha were appropriated and suitable for organic tomato and eggplant, respectively. However, correct and suitable use of compost may increase and maintain the conditions of soil fertility.

(8). Effects of Organic Fertilizers on the Growth of Calla Lily (Zantedeschia Spreng.)
The field results indicated that the number of leaf and survival rate of calla lily at the cut-flower stage, and the diameter, fresh weight, dry weight of the tuber at the tuber harvested stage were found had better responses with the application of bagase-sawdust compost and dairy compost than that with the application of soybean meal. This field result was coordinate with the fact that the survival rate of the tuber at the tuber harvested stage with the application of bagase-sawdust compost was about 50.7%-62.5%, and was significantly higher than that with the application of soybean meal (29.4%). However, the survival rate of the tuber was not significantly different between the application of 10 t/ha and 5 t/ha of bagase -sawdust compost.

(9). The Effects of Different Concentrations of Potassium Fertilizer Application on the Nobile-type Dendrobium Growth
This study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations potassium fertilizer (K 2O: 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 mg/L) on Dendrobium To My Kids ‘Smile’ g rowth characteristics and q uality of flowers . The results showed that plant height were not significantly different among different concentrations potassium fertilizer treatments after transplanting 75 and 115 days. However, plant height applying K 2O 200 mg/L treatment is 59.2 cm higher than applying K 2O 0 mg/L treatment which is 52.9 cm after transplanting 195 days. Plant leaf number, leaf length and pseudobulb width among treatments was not significantly different, but leaf width, pseudobulb nodes number and pseudobulb thickness are significantly different after transplanting 195 days. The application of K 2O 100-200 mg/L treatment has better effects. The flowering node number and flower diameter (transverse diameter) among different concentrations of K 2O treatment has no significantly difference after transplanting 195 days . On the other hand, the total flower number among treatments has significantly differences that applying K 2O 200-400 mg/L has more flower number than application of K 2O 0 mg/L . To sum up, Den. To My Kids ‘Smile’ in the application of N 150 mg/L, P 2O 5 50 mg/L, and K 2O 100-200 mg/L every two weeks is better.

(10). Research of Composting with Garden Tree Leaves
Utilization of compost made from plant and livestock waste in agricultural system is crucial for the maintenance of soil fertility. The objective of this experiment is to develop an efficient way in the composting process of organic residues, such as garden tree leaves and sawdust. The result of composting experiment indicated that the leaves waste compost could use crushed tree leaves 1,000kg as C source, the rapeseed meal 80kg or urea 9kg as N source. The temperature of leaf waste composts were rised to 60 at days 6-11 during composting with the inoculation of isolates of Bacillus sp. (TCB 9401) and Trichoderma sp. (TCFO 9409). Whenever, the C/N ratio of those leaf waste composts were reduced to 15-16 at days 60 after composting. At the same time, the germination rates of the Pak-choi ( Brassica campestris L. Chinensis Group) were 83-87% of the germination test by used the water extracted solution from those leaf waste composts (compost /water with 1/10 by volume ratio). Therefore, those leaf waste composts were closed to stable in the composting process.

(11). Evaluation on the Effects of Microorganism and Growth Medium Waste in Processing Sawdust Growth Medium for Pleurotus eryngii
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of microorganism and growth medium waste in processing sawdust growth medium for Pleurotus eryngii. The four treatments conducted that including fresh sawdust (FS) 100%, fresh sawdust 100% + microorganisms (FS+M), fresh sawdust 75% + growth medium waste 25% (FS+GMW) and fresh sawdust 75% + growth medium waste 25%+ microorganisms (FS+GMW+M). The microorganisms were incorpated into sawdust materials before composting. The inoculated isolates were Trichoderma sp. (TCFO 9409) and Bacillus sp. (TCB 9722). The results indicated that in each treatment, the pH, the contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg of maturated material were increasing; the EC and the contents of organic carbon of maturated material were reducing during maturating process. The temperature of treatment FS+GMW and FS+GMW+M rose up to 60 at day 15, and go down to 50 at day 60 during maturating process. At day 60, the C/N ratios of maturated material in treatment FS+GMW and FS+GMW+M were 74.8 and 72.1, respectively, and the maturated material in those treatments were reached to be stable in the maturated process. The temperature of treatment FS and FS+M rose up to 60 at date 45 and 30 during maturating process, respectively. The temperature of those treatments go down to 50 at day 75 during maturated process. At the same time, the C/N ratio of maturated material in treatment FS+GMW and FS+GMW+M were 74.8 and 72.1, respectively, and the maturated material in those treatments were reached to be stable in the maturated process. Therefore, the C/N ratio of sawdust material in the range of 72-82 could be appropriate for Pleurotus eryngii.

Above information is interception to the website of Taichung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station, COA.

Aquacultural Biotechnology

Aquacultural Biotechnology

Taiwan's aquacultural farming techniques lead the world, being able to complete farm over 70 different types of fish. Besides being able to supply the domestic market, a portion of its high economic types of fish are exported around the world, creating tremendous amount of foreign currency. Therefore, the research talent accumulated, experience and industry foundation are the niches and development potential of Taiwan's aquacultural farming biotech industry. With the rapid development worldwide in the warm water fish farming industry today, introducing new technology into the industry has become a necessary trend and will help stimulate business opportunities for the aquacultural farming biotech industry. Due to the close farming density, conventional aquacultural farming creates large changes in the farming environment. This leads to problems such as the spreading of disease and production shrinkage, which obstructs the development of the farming industry. However, through the use of biotech techniques, all the problems faced by the farming industry can be effectively resolved. Applying biotech techniques to develop related products and information needed during the farming process could help reduce losses from disease and increase production volume as well, thereby enhancing the operation performance of aquacultural farming. Therefore, the aquacultural biotech industry is a niche industry that the worldwide conventional farming industry needs very much.

The aquacultural biotech related products in the market today are mostly for cold water farming animals. As Taiwan is located in both tropical and sub-tropical climates, it already has very good techniques in warm water farming. Therefore, the research and development of aquacultural biotech products for warm water farming should currently be Taiwan's main direction and niche advantage in the development of the aquacultural biotech industry. Not only can this create a different market segment from cold-water use products, but also controls the global market for warm water aquacultural biotech products. In addition, in recent years, several Southeast Asian nations (Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, etc.) have all heavily invested in the aquacultural farming industry. In the future, they will have increased needs for aquacultural biotech products. Therefore, Taiwan should immediately invest in the research and development of aquacultural biotechnology to avoid other countries taking the lead.

The supply of high quality aquacultural seedling is the first and utmost condition in the development of the aquacultural farming industry. Taiwan's aquacultural seedling breeding techniques leads the world; however, the farming environment is complex and difficult to control. Therefore, transgenic and conventional breeding techniques can be used to select, screen, and grow various types of fish and shrimp as well as develop fish and shrimp seeds that are disease and cold resistant, fast growing, and healthy. At the same time, it can enforce the collection and preservation of aquacultural germplasm in addition to applying biology information in the genetic breeding of new seeds. These measures can help Taiwan become the main supplier of aquacultural seedling in the Asia Pacific region.

Above information is interception to the website of Biotechnology Industry Study Centre, Taiwan Institute of Economic Research.

The Pomology Research

The Pomology Research 

(1). The Breeding of Table and Wine Grape in Taiwan
In order to increase variety diversity and to promote industry development, the aim of this study is to select suitable varieties for table grape as well as wine grape in Taiwan. The grape breeding in Taichung DARES were obtained from 90 combinations in the past five years, and 439 hybrid grape seedlings planted in field. The combinations 200905-1 and 200919-19 total soluble solids were over 18 °Brix and had the same berry weight as ‘Kyoho’, therefore they had potential to be new table-grape verities. In wine grape breeding, line L06305 and line K0829 had potential to be new wine-grape verities. The variety testing of those lines were begin in 2009 and 2012, and in line L06305 plant variety right was granted by COA in 2013. The line K0829 variety manual still writing and the new variety right will be proposed in 2014.

(2). Effect of Night Lighting on Shoot, Development and Fruit Set of Grapevine
In order to produce grape in April to May or in July, treated with LED or energy efficient white bulb 6 hours to increase growth and development. Treatment timing depended on vines vigor. On the strong vigor vineyard, the LED can significantly increased shoot length by 27.3cm compare to control with lamb distance 3 ´ 6m and lighting started from near flowering. On the other hand, the weaker one lighting started when shoot about 30cm. Results showed that lighting can increase shoot length by 19-30cm, and LED is significant effect than energy efficient bulb. All lighting treatments increased shoot growth and development but no effect on fruit set at field study.

(3). Studies on the Control of Bearing Shoot in ‘Kyoho’ Grapevines
In Taiwan, the sprouting shoot of ‘Kyoho’ grapevine after forcing culture treatment was the bearing shoot on season, which development status could make a significant influence to the fruiting and quality of grape in the future. The aims of this study was to make sure what kinds of fertilizer among phosphate, potash and boric acid was effective to control shoot elongation in potted and field experiments. Results was shown that a single foliar spray of potassium dihydrogen phosphate 300x or boric acid 800x were not significantly in shooting control, however the potassium carbonate 400x was better for shooting control. In addition, application of superphosphate 100x with boric acid 800x could significantly reduce the node number and come to the elongation control in length.

(4). The aroma composition analysis of horticultural crops

The aroma composition of horticultural crops were different by varieties and development stage. Free volatile flavor compounds of grapes and chrysanthemum were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with headspace-solid phase microextraction. The most abundant volatile compounds of grapes included esters and aldehydes. The most abundant volatile compounds of chrysanthemum included terpenes and ketones. Four and two varieties of grapes and chrysanthemum in different maturation stages were analyzed. The free volatile flavor composition of grape and chrysanthemum changed with maturation.

(5). Improving Fruit Quality in 'Ponkan' Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)
'Ponkan' mandarin was an important fruit industry in central Taiwan. For exporting process, it had to be harvested earlier and treated with low-temperature quarantine. However, half-green 'Ponkan' could not turn to orange color after ethylene-degreening and storage treatment. From our study results, fruit before harvesting treated with 40 to 400 ppm ethephon could increase the rate of coloration and not affect total soluble sugar content and acidity. But, it would increase the rate of fruit drop by 200 and 400 ppm ethephon treatment. Besides, ‘Ponkan’tree sprayed 200 to 400 ppm ethephon and 300 ppm NAA would result serious leaves fell, but 40 ppm ethephon treatment didn’t.

(6). Improving Fruit Quality of Guava by Planting in Simple Net House
A net house was built and the growth of guava fruits that bagged and not bagged were observed and analyzed. The preliminary results showed that the growth of the bagged fruits in the net-house was better than that in the open field, and the TTS was slightly higher. The growth of the un-bagged fruits in the net-house was no good as compared to those bagged, the fruit were smaller and the appearance was inferior. It seemed that the lower temperature in the net-house will support a good growing condition for the fruits in the bag, so to produce fruits of higher quality.

(7). Improvement of Guava Fruit Quality by Adjusting the Leaf-Fruit Ratio
Different fruit thinning and shoot tipping treatments were conducted after autumn-fruit bagging of guava, and the influences on the fruit growth and quality were investigated. The treatments were cutting the fruiting shoots into 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 leaves that left in tip end of the fruit. The results showed that the fruit weight was higher as the leaf number increased, and the shoots that contained 12 to 16 leaves before the fruit had better fruit size, whereas the sugar contents of the winter-fruits was low.

(8). The Breeding of Low-chilling Requirement Pear in Taiwan
Pear hybridization (Ruyu pear × Yokoyama pear) produced 459 nursery plants in 2007, some plantlets could flowered in 2010. The fruit weight of the hybrid progeny below 300 g were 71%, from 300 to 400 g were 24%, more than 400 g were 5%, and total soluble content between 10 to 14 °Brix were 71%, most progeny belonging to the medium maturity types, the color of fruit peel were green or brown. Hybridization progeny obtained 211 seedlings in 2010, and were planted in spacing of 1 × 3m.

(9). Improvement of New Varieties Pear Storage Capacity
The important cultivation work of new varieties of pears ( Fu Lai pear, Full Lucky pear and Lucky Green pear ) was improving soil pH. The pear orchard recommended to improve soil pH above 7, fruits harvested can be refrigerated for 2 to 3 months. 9 -year-old plants in Dongshi area applied N 327.6 g, P 2O 5 225 g, K 2O 240 g per year per plant, which regulated the plant growth and not so much water sprout branches, pome produced can be refrigerated for 2 to 3 months. In the experiment of young fruit sprayed with calcium compounds, 1% aqueous solution of calcium nitrate in the flowering of young fruit sprayed once a week for 6 weeks, The water core symptom of full Lucky pear fruit can be reduced, but 1% aqueous solution of calcium lactate had no improving effect.

(10). Studies on Forcing Culture and Enhancing Fruit Quality
Pitaya is a tropical fruit, which has specific flavor and color. It is a potential fruit in fresh market commodity of Taiwan, but the closely flushes of flower-bud in summer is a problem for pitaya industry. There were 14 flushes of flower buds formed since May to September in 2012, and each flush interval occurred between 5 to 23 days. In this experiment, remova1 of all the flower buds of the shoots could not induce the formation of the next flush flower buds earlier.

Above information is interception to the website of Taichung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station, COA.

Biological Materials Application Research

Biological Materials Application Research

(1). Effects of Bioagent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WG6-14 on the Growth Promotion and Yield Enhancement of Common Bean
The biocontrol agentBacillus amyloliquefaciens WG6-14 10 6 cfu/ml inoculati on with common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds had been found to be able to inhibit the microbial growth and enhance germination rate of common bean. Combined inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli showed to increase in nodulation rate. B. amyloliquefaciens inoculation could increase germination rate of common bean seed. In the field test, inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens showed to the better performance in germination rate, nutrient uptake rate, plant height, number of nodules, nodulation rate, nodule weight, pod yield and total biomass of common bean than uninoculated control one.

(2). Field Evaluation of Attractiveness of Sex Pheromone of the Rice Stem Borer Moth, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
Rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was an important insect pest during rice cultivation periods. The synthetic sex pheromone lure for C. supprsssalis was tested for its attractiveness and used for detecting and trapping C. supprsssalis moth in the rice paddy field. Results showed that three components of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z-11-16Ald), Z-13-octadecenal (Z-13-18Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z-9-16Ald) synthetic sex pheromone lure had better captured capacity for C. supprsssalis. Pheromone lures stuffed in rubber septum was better in attractiveness than those in polyethylene microtube, and its effectiveness can last two month. The number of moths captured by pheromone trap was higher than by light trap. The sex pheromone lure can be used as a tool for monitoring C. medinalis moths.

(3). Field Evaluation of Synthetic Pheromone Blends of the Rice Leaffolder Moth, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
Rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guene, is a seriously insect pest in the cultivated periods of second-cropping rice. Field bioassays using three types of synthetic sex pheromone blends, included Japanese, Indian and Philippine for the rice leaffolder moth. Results showed that only the Japanese blend attracted significant numbers of male C. medinalis, while the Indian and the Philippine blends only showed little attractiveness to the males. Pheromone lures stuffed in polyethylene microtube was better in attractiveness than rubber septum, and its effectiveness could last one month. More C. medinalis moths were caught in traps at heights of 0 m than at 0.2 and 0.4 m above rice plants level. The placement of traps were also affected the attractiveness of C. medinalis moths, and had significant different. Preliminary comparison of efficiency and the fluctuation pattern of C. medinalis moths catch between the pheromone traps and sweeping nets, they had similar trend in the field. The synthetic sex pheromone blend ocould be used as the tool for monitoring C. medinalis moths in Taiwan.

(4). Identification ofFusarium spp. Caused to the Malabar Chestnut Basal Rot and Evaluation on the Selected Fungicide
The basal rot symptoms of Malabar chestnut, Pachiramacrocarpa, had been discovered in Sijhou Township, Changhua County on November, 2010. The basal rot symptoms are developed during growth season in fields or transportation post-harvest. The symptomless infested plants may further develop basal rot symptoms. Three Fusarium spp. strains, TCF-1, TCF-2, and TCF-3, were isolated. These strains had been demonstrated as Malabar chestnut basal rot pathogens by Koch’s postulate. In addition, these strains were further identified as Fusarium solani by their morphological characters and sequence blasted of ITS and eEF1- a DNA fragments. In order to control this disease of Malabar chestnut with fungicides, twelve fungicides were also evaluated in this study. Results showed the mycelium growth of TCF-1 was completely inhibited by 50% of Prochloraz-manganese WP 2000x dilution and 25.9%. It concluded that fungicides application on root of Malabar chestnut and soil was a good strategy to control basal rot disease.

(5). The Limited Spread Performance of Rice Water Weevil ( Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Changhua County, Taiwan
The distribution range of Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus was first recorded in Siansi township, Changhua county, central Taiwan in 2001, then introduced into Changhua city in 2008. Up to 2012, it had dispersed to Huatan township and its dispersal trend tended to slow obviously. The dispersal velocity of L. oryzophilus was merely 0.7 to 4.2 km per year in Changhua county. The time courses of rice seedling transplanting had started from southern part townships, included Erhshui, Sijhou and Zhutang, etc., in early Feb, respectively. Then, the practice was western and northern toward. The Shengang township which located on the tip of northwest, its rice seedling transplanting time had late to mid- Mar. However, as the distribution of L. oryzophilus had restricted on the northern part of Changhua county, it suggested that the different of time courses of rice seedling transplanting had affected the expanded of L. oryzophilus. Otherwise, the dropped seed cultivation was common management practice in northern part of Changhua county in the rice second cropping. More L. oryzophilus adults were attracted by the piece of rice seedling in transplanting treatment than dropped seed treatment, also responded on the adult number of next generation.

(6). The Occurrence and Survey of the Bakanae and White-tip Diseases on Rice in Central Taiwan
The bakanae disease Fusarium moniliforme and white tip disease Aphelenchoides besseyi are rice infectious diseases by rice seed. The 28 lots of rice seeds were collected including five rice varieties from the second crop season, 2009 and the 25 lots of rice seeds from the first season, 2010. Those rice seeds were supplied by the 9 rice seedling nursery centers in central Taiwan. Combining the analyses of those data, it infer that rate of those seeds infested with the pathogen has obvious variations in the same variety of rice seeds from different places, and those seeds originated form Caotun, Wurih, Pitou and Da-an nursery centers have the highest percentage with the F. moniliforme; the higest incidence of bakanae disease on seedling from Hsichou nursery center. Besides, the result showed only part of rice seeds from Da-an, Daya, Caotun and Hsichou nursery centers can detect the A. besseyi, and the seeds from Da-an and Daya was obtained the highest incidence rate of A. besseyi. In addition, comparing the data of incidence on rice seeds, seedling and field, we suggested that the rice seeds from rice seedling nursery center which had higher percentage with the pathogen of F. moniliforme and A. besseyi, that fields neighbored the nursery center could find the disease, then the incidence would higher than other township.

Above information is interception to the website of Taichung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station, COA.

Biofertilizer

 Biofertilizer

Among the materials used in agriculture, fertilizer is the most widely used. Based on fertilizer’s production process, it can be roughly categorized into three types, chemical fertilizer, biofertilizer, and organic fertilizer. Each type of fertilizer has its advantages and disadvantages. These advantages need to be integrated in order to get the most out of each type of fertilizer, and achieve the balanced development of the industry.

The effect of chemical fertilizers is usually direct and fast. In terms of price, it is more competitive than biofertilizer and organic fertilizer, which makes it more accepted and applied by users. However, due to the convenience of using chemical fertilizer, it is often over applied for each unit area. This causes plants to lose their resistance, soil acidification, high concentration of nitrate in agricultural products, etc.

Biofertilizer refers to products using live organisms such as microorganisms or dormant spores to be made into additives’s fertilizer. It is also known as microbial fertilizer. Biofertilizer increases the soil’s fertility, helps plants absorb, and enhances plants’ resistance towards disease, cold, and dry weather. The biofertilizer industry is still a new and upcoming industry. Products come from both local and overseas sources, and produced in the form of either liquid or solid fermentation. There are currently 36 local importers and manufacturers that can be found on the worldwide web today. Most of these manufacturers are small size enterprises that lack the talent and capital for R&D.

In Taiwan, biofertilizer is accepted by only a few farmers growing high economic value crops, such as wax-apple, grafted pear, and grapes. With the low usage rate, there is still a lot of room for developing Taiwan’s biofertilizer. However, although biofertilizer has many advantages, yet its usage environment, strict storage conditions, and the difficulty of using it with pesticides should be overcome as soon as possible.

Above information is interception to the website of Biotechnology Industry Study Centre, Taiwan Institute of Economic Research.

 

Biopesticides

Biopesticides

Biopesticides refer to products made from natural sources such as animals, plants, and microorganisms, including ''natural ingredient pesticides,'' ''microorganism pesticides'' and ''biochemical pesticides.'' In general, biopesticides are safer and less toxic to humans and animals than chemical pesticides. Moreover, biopesticides will not endanger birds or other non-target animals, which make them safer to the habitat and environment. Biopesticides applied onto pests and weeds have prevention target specificity. Disease prevention using biopesticides not only prevents bacillus subtilis, but also fosters crop growth and immunity, as well as the diversity and natural balance of the microorganism's environment and habitat.

The development of biopesticides in Taiwan is still in the initial stage. Farmers have long been used to using conventional pesticides while the effect of chemical pesticides is faster. Today, biopesticides represent a limited share of the overall pesticide market and is mostly imported from abroad. There are about 15 types of biopesticides already registered, with annual sales volume of roughly 30 million. Of this, the main product, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bt pesticides, has annual sales volume of about 13 million, accounting for 43%. However, research sources in Taiwan regarding biopesticides are rather abundant. The National Science Council (NSC), Council of Agriculture (COA), the Development Center for Biotechnology (DCB) along with various colleges and universities all have related research projects. The Council of Agriculture has commissioned National Chung Hsing University to complete R&D on the mass production and production techniques of bacillus subtilis and actinomycetes microorganism fungicide. This technology has already been transferred to five manufacturers. The technology transfer by the DCB of the bacillus subtilis fungicide has already been registered and approved to be marketed.

With the worldwide policy toward reducing pesticide usage and wave of heated research on biopesticides, the marketing and sales volume of wide effective biopesticide products has gradually grown each year. In addition, as people's quality of living improves, organic vegetable and fruit farmers have an increasingly growing demand for biopesticides. Quite a few local biotech companies have already jumped into the biopesticides industry. Forecasts predict that within 3 years, 5 to 6 different types of local microorganism pesticides can be research and developed in Taiwan, estimated to increase its production volume to 150 million. The development of biopesticides should be the future trend in pesticide development.

Above information is interception to the website of Biotechnology Industry Study Centre, Taiwan Institute of Economic Research.

Animals Eat Healthy Food, Too.

Animals Eat Healthy Food, Too.

Date2006-11-14

    The Preventive Medicine becomes more and more popular nowadays. Besides, the healthy foods attract the current public's attention and the consumers scramble for various new healthy foods. However, do you know that animals also have their healthy foods? Especially after the Council of Agriculture has asked the livestock propagators to reduce the use of antibiotic feed additives gradually by explicit order, the animal’s healthy food is getting thriving and the demand of this kind of food increases progressively which won’t lose a bit to the human use of the healthy foods.

    The European Union has comprehensively prohibited the propagators to use the antibiotic accelerants in the feed from 2006. By request for the EU's pace and the tendency of safe and natural agriculture, Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine, Council of Agriculture has deleted the medical feed additives such as Avoparcin and so on from 2000 and has stage by stage forbidden manufacturing, importing and using antibiotic feed additives from 2005. It is expected that after the 1st July 2007, there will remain 14 antibiotics which could be use as medicinal feed additives. The forbidden 10 antibiotics in these three years included: “Thiopeptin”, “Lincomycin”, “Spectinomycin”, “Uirginiamycin”, “Penicilin”, “Neomycin”, “Bacitracin”, “Colistin”, “Chlortetracycline” and “Oxytetracycline”.

    Jun-Cheng Lin, head of Pasture Management Administrative Division, Department of Animal Industry, Council of Agriculture, has indicated that the dependence of propagators is a psychological problem, not a technical problem. If they could realize and recognize that the production management is the basic of all, making the management of safety and hygiene well and allowing the livestock grow up in a healthy growing environment, then, the use of the antibiotic accelerants would not be thus necessary.

    Except the good production management of the pasture, after eliminating the use of antibiotic accelerants, how to look for non-medicinal substitutes under the high-temperature, humid, and highly concentrated breeding situation in Taiwan become a significant topic. That is the reason why no matter the Council of Agriculture or the research institutes are devoted actively to the development of the green feed additives.

    The so-called green feed additives, generally speaking, mean the non-polluting, non-residue, anti-disease and growing accelerant additives. In recent years, the successively developed additives included: microbial agents, enzymatic preparation, acidulants, flavours, Chinese medical herbs preparation and pure natural extracts, etc.

    Hong-Da Yen, the deputy director of Animal Welfare Institute, has indicated that the microbial agents are the microbial products (direct-fed microbials), also called “probiotics”. The most familiar kinds are lactic acid bacteria and yeast which act on stimulating the beneficial microorganism to grow inside the gastrointestinal tract of livestock. This could enhance the immunity of gastrointestinal tract of livestock and suppress the pathogenic bacteria's growth. Take the humanity as the sample, many people deem to eat more yogurt or healthy foods containing lactic acid bacteria in order to stimulate the stomach tonic and the digestion, it is same on the animals. Ying-Hao Huang, head of Department of Animal Industry, Council of Agriculture, has explained the probiotics' effects on livestock breading by the analogy “it is just like to let the animals eat healthy foods.”

    In that case, among numerous green feed additives development presently, which are being used more generally? Zhen-Yuan Liao, the deputy researcher of Division of Applied Biology, Animal Technology Institute Taiwan, has indicated that the most used are probiotics, acidulants and Chinese medical herbs, etc, between which the Chinese medical herbs are blended products.

    In addition to the development of new green feed additives, the researches made great efforts to how to take use of the biotechnology to enable these additives to bring the highest effectiveness. For example, after the active bacteria entering the digestive tract and before arriving the intestinal tract, most of them will be eliminated by the hydrochloric acid in gastric juice and their effects will be limited. In recent years, the Animal Technology Institute has developed the critical technique of the animal-use microencapsulating probiotics and transferred it successfully to manufacturers. The probiotics could bring the most effective acts by entering animals’ body in form of microencapsulating.

    Zhen-Yuan Liao said that with the tendency and the regulations established by government, the demand of green feed additive is steadily on the increase, but the market almost depends on the imported products, the products which are domestically developed and produced on large scale are rare. Hong-Da Yen pointed out the fact that there are three to four domestic manufacturers of the probiotics is indeed deficient. Zhen-Yuan Liao thinks that this situation is related to the SME (small and medium enterprise) type of the domestic manufacturers which have difficulties in investing a considerable fund and efforts on the associated development. Chao-Wei Liao, the researcher working in Division of Medical Science, Animal Technology Institute, who has developed the critical technique of using microencapsulating probiotics on animals, indicated that if we want to expand the domestic market of probiotics, we should have collaborate with the pharmaceutical industry. We can not merely depend on the agricultural industry.

    Jun-Chen Lin suggested that the greed feed additive is basically a conception, but producing a acceptable product and recommending the farmers to use it , then combining with the private-label brands of processed livestock products will bring of the inspiration and the niche.

    Take the Taiwan first production complete record as sample, it is the “Crystal Diamond Pig” produced by Agriculture Production and Marketing Group of Hog inf Kuan-Shan, Taitong and supervised by Animal Technology Institute. Zhen-Yuan Liao said that the “Crystal Diamond Pig” has the features of low-dosed, non-polluting, non-residueand and proof of traceability, even though the price is as much as twice of the normal pork price, the supply in unable to meet the demand. Because of the great achievement of the “Crystal Diamond Pig”, the producer will keep using low-dosed pesticides and the greed feed additives and will contribute to a virtuous circle. Other brands such as “Natural Pig” and “Relieved Pig” was by the same way. Only the union of brands, the development of the domestically produced green feed additives, such as Probiotics, will have more space for expanding.

Above information is interception to the website of Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan R.O.C.

Bio-Tech Makes Agriculture Safer

Bio-Tech Makes Agriculture Safer

Date2006-11-14

    Safe agriculture is the main shaft of agricultural administration while biotechnology will be the popular industry in the 21st century. Faced with intense global competition after its accession to WTO, how can Taiwan create its own value when the demands for safe agriculture meet with those of biotechnology? In recent years, in the domain of agricultural biotechnology, the biological pesticide, biological fertilizer and biotechnology of livestock have made great strides thanks to the efforts of the industry, the government, academia and scientific researchers.

    Safe agriculture reduces the use of chemical fertilizers, chemical pesticides and antibiotics by applying biotechnology and new technology to produce non-polluting, non-residual pesticides and high added-value, high quality agricultural products. After lessening the use of chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides and not adding in antibiotics to accelerate growth in animal foodstuff, how to ensure that crops keep on growing effectively and that livestock grow healthily is the key point for developing agricultural biotechnology.

    The present eight domains of agro-biotechnology include: plant variety and seeds, aquatic industry biotechnology, livestock biotechnology, animal vaccines, foodstuff biotechnology, biological fertilizers, biological pesticides and diagnostic testing.

    However, to focus on the development of domestic agricultural biotechnological industry, driven by the knowledge-based economy era, the four-year program "National Science and Technology Program for Agricultural Biotechnology, Phase III", seeks to integrate hundreds of programs for the eight domains described above from 2005. Mr. Tien-Jing Chen, head of the Office of National Science and Technology Program for Agricultural Biotechnology said that fifteen target industries with large potential have been designated because they are expected to help in the development of agro-biotechnology. Furthermore, they will enable Taiwan agriculture to promote knowledge industries.

    Given the demands for safe agriculture, the program's third phase embraces various research programs related with biological fertilizers and biological pesticides, integrated into the target industries as cited in "Integration for Production Standards and Organic Agriculture Techniques". For example, "Development of Biochemical Blended Pesticides", "Improvement for Mass Production Techniques Development and Environmental Stress-resistance of the Cost-effective Plants Protection", "Developments of Plant-originated and Biological Pesticides", "Using microorganisms and organic matter to produce compound fertilizers and biotechnological fertilizers" and "Using microorganisms to produce multi-functional organic matter".

    In addition to the above programs, there have also been impressive developments in the area of domestic bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides.

    The Intellectual Property Rights Review Committee of the Council of Agriculture approved that the E-911 Bacillus thuringiensis plant be made available to the market beginning 2008. It was developed by the Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute and its technology was successfully transferred to the Fwusow Industry Co. Ltd. This is the first domestically produced Bacillus thuringiensis and will break the monopoly of imported Bacillus thuringiensis in the domestic market.

    According to statistics, the output value of domestic bio-fertilizers has increased substantially from NT$38.55 million in 2003 to NT$40.6 billion in 2004. Its growth margin is 10.5 times higher than those in the eight domains of the agro-biotechnology, showing a growing trend safe and natural agriculture.

    Regarding the development of green feed additives such as Probiotics and Chinese medical herbs, more choices of non-medicinal substitutes have been made available. These are used in livestock treatments in order to reduce pharmaceutical residues in livestock products. Meanwhile, the high-priced livestock brands such as "Crystal and Diamond Pig", "Natural Pig" , etc, have shown excellent sales records thanks to the cooperation between industry and academia. This proves that as long as the quality of the agricultural products is good and safe enough, consumers will always buy them.

Above information is interception to the website of Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan R.O.C.

 

Biological Fertilizers a Gentler Way to Protect Crops

Biological Fertilizers a Gentler Way to Protect Crops

Date2006-11-14

What images come to your mind when you think of pesticides? Toxic and dangerous to human beings? Leaves pesticide residues in your body?

Biological pesticides should help rid you of these negative impressions of pesticides.

    Kao Suei-shen, the director of the biological pesticide team at the Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute, Council of Agriculture has devoted himself to biological pesticide development work for over 20 years. He is never satisfied with just hearing that people know the word "biological pesticide". He would add to whatever they know by saying that biological pesticide is very different from traditional chemical pesticides and would explain the origin of biological pesticides. In fact, biological pesticides should be termed the "Plant Protectant," he says, because this expresses their essence.

    What is a biological pesticide?

    A general term which is applied to a biological control agent, normally a pathogen or micro-organism, formulated and applied in a way similar to a chemical pesticide, and used for the rapid reduction of a pest population in a short-term control programme.

    The Council of Agriculture defines it as the organic product of genetic composition. In this way, they share in the organic nature of animals, plants, microorganisms and products derived from them, including "natural material pesticides", "microorganism pesticides", and "biochemical pesticides.". According to the American Environment Protection Department, biological pesticides are non-toxic and only works on the targeted noxious disease of insects and plants. In fact, biological pesticides can be produced by living creatures in nature.

    Kao further explained that biological pesticide is less dangerous than traditional pesticides. For example, they are not poisonous to humans, domestic animals and wild animals. Neither are they the enemy of insects. In addition, biological pesticides have several advantages such as fast dissolution, non-pollution andnon- residual. Crops can be harvested right after their use; there is no need to wait for a safe harvest date. And rarely are plants resistant to them.

    In growing crops, it is common to run into problems such as destructive insects and diseases. To protect their crops, farmers would make use of chemical pesticides to kill destructive bacteria and insects. However, chemical pesticides dissolve slowly and crops usually develop to them after some time. In addition, over-exposure to chemical pesticides causes harm to human beings and the environment and pesticide residuals are a major problem. This is why steps have been taken to reduce the use of chemical pesticides and find alternatives.

Biological pesticides do not have the disadvantages of chemical pesticides. They come from nature and coexist with what is natural. Compared chemical pesticides, biological pesticides are a gentler way of protecting plants.

    Biological pesticides are suitable for short-term and long-term crops, organic products, virgin forest plants, shade trees in cities and plants in parks. Categorized according to use, biological pesticides can be germicides, herbicides and nematicides. In terms of domestic pesticide development, the most commonly used is Bt toxin. Second most commonly used are Metarhizium, Anisopliae, Beauveda, Nomuraea rileyi and Baculovirus. Among germicides, the best known are Bacillus mycoldes, Trichoderma spp, and Pseudomonas putida.

    The preference for gentle protection of plants can be proven by the numbers.

    According to Kao, the global plants protection market reached US$33.7 billion in 2000 and biological pesticides accounted for 3 % of the market. It is estimated that the global plants protection market will grow to US$63.6 billion after 2013 and biological pesticides willgrow from US$1 billion to US$5 billion. Biological pesticides will account for 8% of the market at that time. The growth of biological pesticides is only behind genetically modified organisms.

    Chan Chung-he, an agriculture materials researcher at the Taiwan Fu-sho Company, said that a market analysis report by Frost and Sullivan in September 2001 showed that the annual compounded growth rate of the European biological pesticide market was 11.7% from 2000 to 2007.

    According to the Council of Agriculture, domestic market total sales of Taiwan pesticides is around NT$4.89 billion in 2004. This figure was slightly lower than the NT$5.55 billion in 2002 and NT$5.51 billion in 2003. Total sales of domestic biological pesticides is NT$49.18 million. Sales of domestic pesticides were expected to decline further after Taiwan joined the WTO. However, the figure did not decline dramatically when compared to the past 5 years.

    During the Modern Agricultural Operations Strategy Seminar in 2001, Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute said that the use of chemical pesticides would decline dramatically to just 60% of present use in the next 10 years. However, the use of biological pesticides and resistant crops will rise and might account for 40% of the market.

    If the total sales will not change in the next 10 years, the Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute estimates that the domestic sales of biological pesticides might grow to NT$2 billion in 10 years. A growth from NT$49.18 million to NT$2 billion would show that the future for domestic biological pesticide is certainly a bright one.

     Kao said that Taiwan is an important place to develop biological pesticides since it located between the tropical and subtropical zones. This means that Taiwan has a wide range of microorganism resources. However, the term pesticide still implies industrial development. For instance, when some businessmen applied for permission to establish a biological pesticide factory, the city and county governments rejected their requests because they usually link a pesticide factory to pollution, health hazards and public protests. The public still cannot distinguish between biological and chemical pesticides. This is why Kao Suei-shen suggested that the "biological pesticide" be changed into "Plants Protectant" and that guidelines for establishing factories be revised. This way "Plants Protectant" has the chance to help pave a bright future for Taiwan agriculture.

Above information is interception to the website of Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan R.O.C.

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